The course of Biblical Archaeology introduces the world of the human past giving notions of Archaeology in general and of Biblical Archaeology in particular. This course considers a chronology and a vision of the Stone and Metal Ages, studies archaeological methodology and shows in special manner the themes of human habitation, development, cities, monuments (both sacred and profane), the site of Qumran and Jewish and Christian Archaeology. For their importance, the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem and the Holy Shroud of Turin will be also studied. New Testament History: General Objective: This course of New Testament History introduces the world of the New Testament time, from 134 BC until 135 AD. After an introduction about the meaning of the History of the New Testament and a presentation of the main Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, the course will deal with Chronology, the Hasmonean dynasty, the Roman Conquest of Judea, Herod the Great and his family, the political, social, religious and cultural situation of Palestine during the life of Jesus and the first generations of the Christian Church until the second revolt of the Jews against Rome (135 AD).
Archaeology in general. Human Past. Biblical Archaeology. Stone and Metal Ages. Chronology and study. Archaeological methodology. Archaeological basic notions. History of Archaeology in Holy Land. Human habitation, Villages and cities, Walls and gates, Ancient water systems, Monuments, Sacred sites: high places, temples, tombs, synagogues, mikvaoth. Profane buildings: baths, theatre, amphitheatre, nymphaea, circus, odeon. Qumran. History and importance. Documents. Jewish Archaeology. Christian Archaeology. The Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. The Holy Shroud of Turin. Learning Outcomes: •Through this course the students will demonstrate in writing the strength of their understanding of the historicity of the Gospels. After the first month of lessons, there will be a mid-term examination about the already studied matter. New Testament History: Course Outline: Introduction. History of New Testament. Literary Sources: Jewish, Greco-Roman and Christian sources. Flavius Joseph: Life. Diplomatic Mission. War. Literary activity. Critical judgment. Chronology of the history of the New Testament. Chronology of antiquity. Hasmoneans. Government and expansion. Principal figures. Parties. Roman conquest. Pompey the Great. Roman policy in Palestine: Pompey’s decrees. Antipater. Herod the Great: Life and personality. Policy. Economy. Works and buildings. Temple of Jerusalem: History. The building. Herod’s family mentioned in the New Testament. Roman government in Palestine. Roman Procurators. Political, cultural and social situation of Palestine at the time of the New Testament. Judaism. Hellenism. Roman Empire. Jewish world in Palestine: privileges of the Jews. Economic Situation of Palestine. Life and expansion of the Church. First Jewish revolt against Rome: 66-74 AD. Tragic end. Military campaign in Galilee. Fate of Jerusalem. Second Jewish revolt against Rome: 132–135 AD. New Wars. Simon Bar Kochba. Hadrian’s decrees. Learning Outcomes: • Through this study and written examinations the students will demonstrate a suitable understanding of the time of Jesus with the knowledge of the most important events and people that will allow them to understand better the life of Christ and the Gospels. After the first month of lessons, there will be a partial or mid-term examination about the already studied matter.
Professor’s notes Bibliography: Aharoni, Y. The Archeology of the Land of Israel. England: SCM Press, 1983. Avigad, N. Discovering Jerusalem. Nashville: Blackwell Publishers, 1983. AA.VV. The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. 4 vol. Edited by Ephraim Stern. London: Macmillan, 1993. Finkelstein I. and N. A. Silberman. David and Solomon. London: Simon and Schuster Ltd, 2007. _____. The Bible Unearth. New York: Touchstone, 2002. González Echegaray J. Pisando tus umbrales. Jerusalen: Estella, 2005. Hoppe, Leslie J. What are they saying about Archaeology? Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1984. Kenyon, K. The Bible and recent Archeology. London: British Museum Press, 1987. Loffreda S. Holy Land Pottery at the Time of Jesus. Illnois: Franciscan Press, 2004. Millard, A. Archeologia e Bibbia. Torino: Sao Paolo Edizioni, 1988. ______. Archeologia e Vangeli. Edited by G. Ravasi. Torino: San Paolo Edizoni,1992. Murphy-O’Connor, J. The Holy Land. An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Price, C. Dead Sea Scrolls. California: Rose Publishing, 2005. Ritmeyer, L. The Quest: Revealing the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. Jerusalem: Carta, 2007. Zvi’s,Yad Ben. Jerusalem a Walk through Time. Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 2006. New Testament History: Professor’s notes Bibliography: AA.VV. “La vérité sur Pîlate”, in Le monde de la Bible 128, 2008. (monography) Josephus, Flavius. The New Complete Works of Josephus. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1999. _____. The Works of Flavius Josephus. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1983. Kokkinos, N. The Herodian Dinasty, Sheffield: Continuum International, 1998. Liverani, M. Oltre la Bibbia. Bari: laterza, 2009. Lohse, E. L’ambiente del Nuovo Testamento. Brescia: Paideia, 1980. Whiston, W. and P. Maier. Josephus, Green Forest: Master Books, 2008.