Continuing from Patrology I, this course focuses on the relationship of the Fathers with the formation of the Canon and the Scripture exegesis, and the relationship between Jews and Christians. Moreover the course will present the origin and development of Trinitarian and Christological formulations which were finally expressed in the Councils’ declarations, with regard to the exegetical interpretations and the challenges of the Hellenistic culture and language. IV century: Church and Roman Empire, and political theology from Eusebius of Caesarea to Ambrosius of Milan. Arian crisis, clash between Church and State, Athanasius of Alexandria and Hilarius of Poitiers. Scriptural and “musical” theology of Efrem the Syrian and other Syrian authors. Pastoral theology in the Holy Land of Cyril of Jerusalem. Mature Trinitarian theology and first phases of the Christological controversies: Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa. Ambrosius of Milan, pastor, exegete, and theologian of the East-West synthesis. Mention of the first Monastic spirituality. V century: History of exegesis: the schools in Bethlehem and Jerusalem. The controversy between Alexandria and Constantinople: the case of John Chrysostom. Christological controversy and the Council of Ephesus: Cyril of Alexandria. Augustine and the Patristic synthesis. Two towering Roman Bishops: Leo the Great and the Council of Chalcedon, and Gregory the Great (centuries VI-VII). The final point of the great Patristic Theology: Maximus the Confessor.
Cf. Patrology 1